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Technological progress made in the 1990s and the 21st century has influenced the way that chess is studied at all levels, as well as the state of chess as a
Random chance None Skills required , Chess is a recreational and competitive played between two In 2013, of Norway beat Anand in the

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shortened as GM; sometimes International Grandmaster or IGM is used is awarded to world-class chess masters.

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So much that is bright and glittering and desirable was invented by them
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Kenneth Regan and Guy Haworth conducted research involving comparison of move choices by players of different levels and from different periods with the analysis of strong chess engines; they concluded that the increase in the number of grandmasters and higher Elo ratings of the top players reflect an actual increase in the average standard of play, rather than "rating inflation" or "title inflation"
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traditional national or regional games that share common ancestors with Western chess such as , , , , , and ;• : In tournament chess, draws are most commonly reached by mutual agreement between the players
; Campitelli, Guillermo; Hambrick, David Z Part of a Left to right: white , black , black , white , black , white Years active c
In the , chess was revolutionized by the new theoretical school of so-called like and Regan, Kenneth; Haworth, Guy 4 August 2011

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Current Directions in Psychological Science.

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Main article: The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board
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Chess Federation's official rules of chess
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