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高考英语一轮总复习短文改错

外语  加入时间:2013-05-27  徐进龙  点击:791  评论数:

 

高考英语一轮总复习短文改错
高考短文改错旨在考查考生对书面语的校验技能,即发现、判断、纠正语篇错误的能力。一般来讲,所选文段都是接近学生实际写作水平的习作,难度并不很大。但从历年考试结果来看,本题得分并不很高。究其原因,除了心理准备不足、基础知识薄弱、没有建立正确的英语语感外,对设题的特点及解题的技巧了解不够也是一个重要的失分原因。本文借助近年高考题,特别是2004年全国卷和各省市卷谈谈巧解短文改错的思路与技巧。

一.短文改错的解题基本思路:

(一).以句为单位,找行中错误。每行必有一个判断(错词、多词、少词和正确),而判断的依据一定是上下文,最小单位是一个完整的句子。
(二).以篇为单位,找句中错误。许多时候,就某一行或某一句单独而言常常难以判断其是否正确,错误何在,而必须以全篇为一整体才可对该句、进而对该行做出判断。

二.短文改错的解题基本技巧:
(一).时态一致
短文中谓语动词的时态与上下文,特定语言环境及该句的时间状语应保持呼应与一致。
例1.Sometimes we talked to each other very well in class, but after class we become strangers at once. 
全文都是一般现在时,此句中talked显然与上下文不一致,应改为talk。
例2.I remembered her words and calm down.
此处为一描述过去事件的语境,应与前文remembered 保持一致,须改为calmed。
例3.Today, it is much easier to be healthy than it is in the past.
第一个is 与时间状语today保持一致,第二个is则应改为was, 使之与其时间状语in the past 一致。
(二).主谓一致
谓语动词在人称和数上应与主语保持一致。
例4.Now my picture and the prize is hanging in the library.
主语为A and B时,谓语动词一般为复数,应改为are。
例5.One evening she told me that something happened when her parents was out. 
主语为her parents,谓语应为复数,was应改为were.
例6.Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong… 
此处与例4,例5不同,谓语动词makes与上下文保持一致,为正确的用法,而play须改Playing 才可与此处其它部分一致。
(三).平行一致
not only…but also…, either…or…, neither…nor…以及and, but, or 等并列连词或词组连接的结构可称为平行结构。在平行结构中,词性时态等形式须保持前后一致。
例7.Playing football not only makes… but also give us a sense of fair play and team spirit.
依据平行一致原则,此处give应与前文 makes保持一致,改为gives.
例8.I would describe myself as shy and quietly.
此句中and前后应平行,quietly应改为形容词quiet。
例9. However, we seldom felt lonely or helplessly.
此题迷惑性较大,乍一看,应该没问题。但felt后应跟形容词,lonely是形容词,而helplessly是副词,应改为helpless.
(四).数的一致
名词的数须与其修饰语保持一致
例10.You can find all kinds of information in just a few minute on the Internet.
a few只修饰复数名词,如保持一致,minute 应改为minutes.
例11.You know, that was a dinner we had waited for several month.
与several 保持一致的只能是复数名词,month应改为months.
(五).主饰一致
句中的主要词(中心词)应与其修饰词间保持一致。
除了上面例10,例11外,还有:
例12.I would learn a lot of new words from these books, but I had terribly problems memorizing them.
修饰名词problems的应为形容词,terribly应改为terrible。
例13.She said that she and my schoolmate all wished me success.
all修饰的主语部分应是三者以上故schoolmate 应为schoolmates.
例14.Unfortunate, there are too many people…
Unfortunate应作状语,修饰整个句子,此时应为副词 unfortunately 才可保持一致。
例15.Yes, a concert can be very excited.
系动词后用形容词excited应该没错,但事、物做主语时应为exciting.
(六).指代一致
用于指代的各类代词应在数、格、性上与上下文保持一致。
例16.And every year more and more people start a stamp collection of your own.
指代前文people,与其保持一致应该用their。故your改为their。
例17.It is us who are to blame for the poverty because we used to …
此句为强调句型,其中被强调部分us应该是句中主语,故应改为we。
例18.What is more, you have to be friends with your pupils and take good care of him.
 此处him应指前文pupils,故改为them才可保持一致。
(七).语态一致
句中谓语动词或非谓语动词应与上下文语态保持一致。
例19.Books may be keep for four weeks.
与其主语Books相对应,此处应为被动语态,故keep应改为kept。
例20.I have some records giving to me as birthday gifts.
非谓语动词giving与其逻辑主语应该是动宾关系,故应为given, 构成have something done。
(八).搭配一致
句中的固定搭配应保持完整并与上下文一致。
例21. I felt so nervous as I shook like a leaf.
后跟从句,保持一致须用so…that结构这一固定搭配。as改为that.
例22.They make their lives by collecting and selling used things.
Make a/ones living(谋生)固定搭配中,不受其前代词their影响,只可用living.
例23.But it didn’t matter that I would win or not.
 与其后or not 保持一致时应用whether。
例24.I have neither brothers nor sisters---in any other words, I am an only child.
“换言之”固定搭配,应为in other words。
(九).逻辑一致
这是一种隐蔽性较强且年年必考的错误,检查时应通篇考虑,重点在连词、代词,肯定与否定,及相对应的动词如 come 与go 等。
例25.And when I saw your wife and children waiting for me with warm smiles of welcome on their faces, I immediately knew that everything would be all right.
 从上下文看,因为语言问题,我对新的环境感到很担忧,但见到这家人时,一切担忧都烟消云散。故And应为But。
例26.Unfortunately, I won’t be able to visit you at the airport although I have classes in the afternoon.
 从全句可知,此处应为解释原因,故although应改为because.
例27.And they must not break the rules too often if we want to win the game.通读全文,都是用第一人称,这时突然用到they,显然不一致,应改为we.


试用上面方法做下面练习:

I often dream of a teacher , I dream of standing on the 76.
platform in the classroom and give lessons to lovely boys 77.
and girls . I teach them , play with them , but watch them 78.
growing up . I am always young when I was staying 79.
with them . I know there is not easy to be a teacher . You 80.
have to learn in order to teach . Without enough knowledges, 81.
you can never learn well .What is more , you have to 82.
be friends with your pupils and take good care of him . 83.
Only in this way can you be a good teacher and win 84.
respect from them . Though I am a student now , I will
work as very hard to make my dream come true . 85.


答案
76.以句为单位,找行中错误。从全句意思可知,应为“我梦想‘成为’一名教师”,故应在dream of 后加上being或becoming。
77.平行一致。And前后应平行,give改为giving。
78.逻辑一致。从语义关系上来讲,这三个动词应为顺延关系,but 改为and。
79.时态一致。全文均为现在时态,此处不该用过去时态,was改为am。
80.搭配一致。此结构中应该用it 来指代to be a teacher作形式主语,there改为it。 81.主饰一致. 尽管enough既可修饰可数名词又可修饰不可数名词,但knowledge做“知识”讲时应是不可数名词,去掉s。
82.以篇为单位,找句中错误。从语法上看不出此句错误,但从整篇文段看,作为教师尽管learn亦很重要,但此处应为teach才好。
83.指代一致。此处him指代前文pupils,故改为them才可保持一致。
84.√
85.搭配一致。此句结构完整,as赘余,应删去。
 


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·高考英语一轮总复习短文改错